Updating sql server 2016 r2
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I've seen cases where an employee has moved on, but their Windows account, being the only one with Administrator privileges for SQL Server, had been completely obliterated from the system.
Plus, unless you uninstall the old instance first, the new instance will have a new instance name, and therefore all client applications will need to be updated.
You will need to agree to the license terms in order to proceed.
When Management Studio launches, it will prompt you to connect to a server.
You might be asked to upgrade to SP4 as part of troubleshooting.
Please refer to Question 3 if you need a non-security hotfix for SP4 to address your issue.
Thanks to Mark Russinovich of Sysinternals fame, there is a very painless way to solve this problem without any downtime: Ps Exec.
While it wasn't one of its primary design goals, Ps Exec allows you to run programs as the NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM account, which - unlike "regular" Administrator accounts - has inherent access to SQL Server.
Starting with SQL Server 2008, the local Administrators group is no longer added by default during SQL Server setup; you even have to use a manual step to add the current user as a local administrator.
This means that it is possible, especially if you don't use mixed authentication (or have forgotten the sa password), that you can be completely locked out of your own SQL Server instance.
You will notice that the authentication mode is Windows Authentication, and the username is hard-coded as NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM: Logins and add your account as a sysadmin, add other admin accounts, update the sa password, and do anything else you need to do to make your instance manageable.
As you can see, I was able to connect in this way to both SQL Server 2008 and SQL Server 2012 instances from an instance of Management Studio 2012.
If such discoveries were made for SQL Server 2012 Service Pack 4, then yes, GDRs would be released in the context of the Lifecycle Policy of SQL Server 2012. Microsoft ships a GDR in the event of the discovery of an issue that Microsoft believes should be fixed through a GDR.