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The opinion states: First, consider the facts as the legislature saw them when it adopted the District statute.As stated by the local council committee that recommended its adoption, the major substantive goal of the District’s handgun restriction is “to reduce the potentiality for gun-related crimes and gun-related deaths from occurring within the District of Columbia.” * A 1994 survey conducted by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that Americans use guns to frighten away intruders who are breaking into their homes about 498,000 times per year. * According to the CDC, there were about 18,498 gun-related accidents that resulted in death or an emergency room visit during 2001 (the earliest year such data is available from the CDC). handgun ban was unconstitutional, because it violated the Second Amendment “individual right to keep and bear arms” (more details below). Regarding this decision: * In May 2009, President Obama announced Sonya Sotomayor as his first nominee to the Supreme Court. She was confirmed in a 68–31 Senate vote, with 100% of Democrats voting for her confirmation and 79% of Republicans voting against it. * In May 2010, Obama announced his second nominee to the Supreme Court, Elena Kagan. As a law clerk for Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, Kagan wrote a memo recommending Marshall deny hearing an appeal from a man who was convicted of violating Washington, D. She wrote in the memo: * Gun control proponents have argued and some federal courts have ruled that the Second Amendment does not apply to individual citizens of the United States but only to members of militias, which, they assert, are now the state National Guard units.  In 2002, a federal appeals court panel ruled that “the people” only “have the right to bear arms in the service of the state.” * Gun rights proponents have argued and some federal courts have ruled that the Second Amendment recognizes “an individual right to keep and bear arms.” In 2001, a federal appeals court panel ruled that the Second Amendment “protects the right of individuals, including those not then actually a member of any militia or engaged in active military service or training, to privately possess and bear their own firearms….” * James Madison was the primary author of the Bill of Rights, is known as the “Father of the Constitution” for his central role in its formation, and was one of three authors of the Federalist Papers, a group of essays published in newspapers and books to explain and lobby for ratification of the Constitution.  * In Federalist Paper 46, James Madison addressed the concern that a standing federal army might conduct a coup to take over the nation.
Notwithstanding the military establishments in the several kingdoms of Europe, which are carried as far as the public resources will bear, the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms. * In 1976, the Washington, D. City Council passed a law generally prohibiting residents from possessing handguns and requiring that all firearms in private homes be (1) kept unloaded and (2) rendered temporally inoperable via disassembly or installation of a trigger lock.  The District’s total ban on handgun possession in the home amounts to a prohibition on an entire class of “arms” that Americans overwhelmingly choose for the lawful purpose of self-defense.This is roughly 27 times lower than the CDC’s 1994 estimate for the number of times Americans use guns to frighten away intruders who are breaking into their homes. * The President of the United States appoints justices to the Supreme Court. He argued that this was implausible because, based on the country’s population at the time, a federal standing army couldn’t field more than 25,000–30,000 men.These appointments must be approved by a majority of the Senate. Senate rules allow for a “filibuster,” in which a vote to approve a justice can be blocked unless three-fifths of the senators (typically 60 out of 100) agree to let it take place. * Once seated, federal judges serve for life unless they voluntarily resign or are removed through impeachment, which requires a majority vote of the House of Representatives and a two-thirds vote in the Senate. * In 2008, the U. He then wrote: To these would be opposed a militia amounting to near half a million of citizens with arms in their hands, officered by men chosen from among themselves, fighting for their common liberties, and united and conducted by governments possessing their affections and confidence.Of these, 91% of the firearm transactions and 100% of the explosives transactions were allowed. * Under federal law, individuals who have been convicted of a felony offense that would typically prohibit them from possessing firearms can lawfully possess firearms if their civil rights are restored by the requisite government entities. * Using fake driver’s licenses bearing fictitious names, investigators with the Government Accountability Office had a 100% success rate buying firearms in five states that met the minimum requirements of the federal background check system.  A 2001 report of this investigation states that the federal background check system “does not positively identify purchasers of firearms,” and thus, people using fake IDs are not flagged by the system. provide a venue for the sale and exchange of firearms by federal firearms licensees (FFLs). Such shows also are a venue for private sellers who buy and sell firearms for their personal collections or as a hobby.In these situations, the sellers are not required to have a federal firearms license.This law also required that firearm certificates specify the identification numbers (“if known”) of all firearms and shotguns owned by the applicant. * In 1997, Britain passed a law requiring civilians to surrender almost all privately owned handguns to the police.
More than 162,000 handguns and 1.5 million pounds of ammunition were “compulsorily surrendered” by February 1998.
Likewise, data associated with the effects of gun control laws in various geographical areas represent random, demographically diverse places in which such data is available.
Many aspects of the gun control issue are best measured and sometimes can only be measured through surveys, but the accuracy of such surveys depends upon respondents providing truthful answers to questions that are sometimes controversial and potentially incriminating. Thus, Just Facts uses this data critically, citing the best-designed surveys we find, detailing their inner workings in our footnotes, and using the most cautious plausible interpretations of the results.
When the Supreme Court overturned the District of Columbia’s handgun ban in June 2008, at least four of these suburbs repealed their bans. * In June 2010, the U. Supreme Court ruled (5 to 4) that Chicago’s ban was unconstitutional. Thereafter, Chicago adopted gun ordinances that required licensees to have firearm range training but prohibited firing ranges within the city. After an unfavorable federal court ruling, Chicago revised its regulations to permit firing ranges within the city, subject to “comprehensive” regulations. As of January 2016, there were no firing ranges within the city limits. * In July 2013, Illinois passed a law that permits concealed carrying of handguns, making it the last state in the U. to allow concealed carry. By the end of 2014, nearly 91,700 concealed carry permits had been issued in the state, and 26% of these permits were issued in Cook County, which includes Chicago. * In 2011, the Chicago Police Department made an “internal policy decision to discontinue” its murder analysis reports that provided data on total firearm and handgun murders.
The Chicago Police Department expects to begin publishing these reports again in 2017. someone convicted of or under indictment for a felony punishable by more than one year in prison, someone convicted of a misdemeanor punishable by more than two years in prison, a fugitive from justice, an unlawful user of any controlled substance, someone who has been ruled as mentally defective or has been committed to any mental institution, an illegal alien, someone dishonorably discharged from the military, someone who has renounced his or her U. citizenship, someone subject to certain restraining orders, or someone convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor.    * Under federal law, private individuals are not required to a conduct a background check before selling or transferring a firearm to someone who lives in the same state, but it is illegal and punishable by up to 10 years in prison for a private individual to sell or transfer a firearm while “knowing” or having “reasonable cause to believe” that the recipient falls into one of the prohibited categories above.  * From the inception of the federal background check system in 1998 to 2014, about 202.5 million background checks for gun purchases were processed through the FBI’s background check system.
A fully automatic firearm fires multiple bullets with the single pull of the trigger.  * A 1993 nationwide survey of 4,977 households found that over the previous five years, at least 0.5% of households had members who had used a gun for defense during a situation in which they thought someone “almost certainly would have been killed” if they “had not used a gun for protection.” This amounted to 162,000 such incidents per year.