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Thus, the basic concept of NIPPV is the application of positive pressure during the respiratory cycle (inspiration and expiration).
The names of the modes may change between manufacturers, as well as the algorithms to titrate settings.
It is the mainstay of ventilatory support in patients with acute respiratory failure from diverse causes, with most of the evidence supporting its use in the acute setting for COPD exacerbations and cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
It is also extensively used in chronic conditions including obstructive sleep apnea, sleep-disordered breathing associated with congestive heart failure, conditions associated with hypoventilation such as central sleep apnea, Bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation cycles between a higher inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and a lower expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP).
Several modes of mechanical ventilation can be delivered with home and critical care ventilators; we focused on those reviewed in the manuscript.
The device also increase functional residual capacity but does not directly augment the tidal volume.
Importantly, many modes intended for invasive mechanical ventilation can also be delivered in a noninvasive form.
Below we present the modes that are mainly used in NIPPV.The breathing is triggered by a spontaneous patient effort.Additionally, in some patients, a set back up rate can be set such as in conditions associated with central apneas (with absence of spontaneous efforts), persistent hypercapnia (to augment minute ventilation), or neuromuscular diseases (when spontaneous breath could be so weak that they fail to trigger the device).Noninvasive ventilation is the delivery of mechanical ventilation without the need for artificial airway through the larynx or trachea.The traditional method to administer noninvasive ventilation was through devices that generated negative pressures (i.e., noninvasive negative pressure ventilation), such as the cuirass or the iron lung.Whereas pressure-controlled devices are the most commonly used modalities for noninvasive support of ventilation in both acute and chronic setting, volume-controlled ventilators are also available, most often as adaptations of devices intended for use via tracheostomy.