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It is derived from the ancient Vanga or Banga Kingdom mentioned in the Mahabharata as located in eastern Bengal, which in turn is thought to preserve the name of a Dravidian-speaking tribe called the Bang who settled the region around the year 1000 BC.
First appearing as a corruption of the Spanish name for an island in Vanuatu in 1625,"There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will ever be found in a more southern latitude; the name Terra Australis will, therefore, remain descriptive of the geographical importance of this country, and of its situation on the globe: it has antiquity to recommend it; and, having no reference to either of the two claiming nations, appears to be less objectionable than any other which could have been selected."(Antarctica, the hypothesized land for which the name Terra Australis originally referred to, was sighted in 1820, and not explored until decades after Flinders' book had popularized this shift of the name.)Oz, a colloquial endonym: Likely a contraction from above.It appeared in the names of two states, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic and the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.A popular folk etymology relates Bahrain to the "two seas" mentioned five times in the Quran.Subsequently, the EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as Bootan and then popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet.Druk Yul, the local endonym: "Land of the Thunder Dragon" in Bhutanese (འབྲུག་ཡུལ་).(The name is often derived from the Greek Atropatene ( although these were exonyms and Atropatkan was never thoroughly Hellenized.) Atropatkan was a renaming of the Achaemenian XVIII Satrapy of Eastern Armenia, comprising Matiene and the surrounding Urartians and Saspirians, but Strabo reported its people to have 26 different languages and to have only been recently unified in his time.
It is often referenced as "Caucasian Albania" in modern scholarship to distinguish it from the European country above.
Upon the restoration of independence, the name was deemed no longer appropriate since the historic kingdom comprised only the southern regions and ethnicities of the modern state. Names similar to Bhutan—including Bottanthis, Bottan, Bottanter—began to appear in Europe around the 1580s.
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan.
Therefore, Afghanistan translates to the "Afghan-land; place of the Afghans" in the nation's official languages, Pashto and Dari.
It is said that the word 'Afghanistan' is derived from two Sanskrit words, first is avagāṇa (Sanskrit: अवगाण) which was used by the Indian astronomer Varahamihira in his Bṛhat Saṃhitā in the 6th century Arbëri, its medieval endonym: "Land of the Albanians" in Albanian, presumably from the same source as above by way of rhotacism.
This list covers English language country names with their etymologies.