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the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts.
Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania are geographically in Sub-Saharan Africa, but are likewise Arab states and part of the Arab world.Extensive walled sites and settlements have recently been found in Zilum, Chad.The area is located approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad, and has been radiocarbon dated to the first millennium BCE.Some of the earlier representatives of this species were small-brained and used primitive stone tools, much like H. Potentially the first hominid to engage in hunting, H. They were the first hominids to leave Africa, going on to colonize the entire Old World, and perhaps later on giving rise to Homo floresiensis. georgicus to be an early and primitive member of the H. The fossil record shows Homo sapiens living in southern and eastern Africa anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 years ago.Between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, their expansion out of Africa launched the colonization of the planet by modern humans.Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties.
The Kingdom of Kongo existed from the Atlantic west to the Kwango river to the east.The Mwata Yamyo's legitimacy, like the Luba king, came from being viewed as a spiritual religious guardian.This imperial cult or system of divine kings was spread to most of central Africa by rivals in kingship migrating and forming new states.Simplified climatic map of Africa: Sub-Saharan Africa consists of the Sahel and the Horn of Africa in the north (yellow), the tropical savannas (light green) and the tropical rainforests (dark green) of Equatorial Africa, and the arid Kalahari Basin (yellow) and the "Mediterranean" south coast (olive) of Southern Africa.The numbers shown correspond to the dates of all Iron Age artifacts associated with the Bantu expansion.Southern Africa has a transition to semi-tropical or temperate climates (green), and more desert or semi-arid regions, centered on Namibia and Botswana.