Biblical view on dating
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According to this account, the young Samuel was dedicated by his mother Hannah there, to be raised at the shrine by the high priest, and his own prophetic ministry is presented as having begun there.Hophni and Phinehas are noted as malicious in their dealings with those who came to the shrine to offer sacrifices. Albright, hypothesized that the Philistines also destroyed Shiloh at this time; this conclusion is disputed who instigated the revolt of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, against David's grandson Rehoboam (I Kings 11, 14), came from there, and he bore, interestingly, the same name as the Aaronite priest that consulted the Ark for Saul in I Samuel 14:3.
At some point during its long stay at Shiloh, the portable tent seems to have been enclosed within a compound — a Greek "temenos".The people made pilgrimages there for major feasts and sacrifices, and Judges 21 records the place as the site of an annual dance of maidens among the vineyards.According to 1 Samuel 1–3, the sanctuary at Shiloh was administered by the Aaronite high priest Eli and his two sons, Hophni and Phinehas.It is located to the west of the modern town of Shilo in the West Bank, south of ancient Lebonah and 16 kilometres (10 mi) north of Beth El.Shiloh was the major Israelite worship centre before the first Temple was built in Jerusalem. Sometimes, it is translated as a Messianic title that means He Whose It Is Mentioned in the time of the Book of Joshua, Book of Psalms and Judges, Shiloh is situated north of Bethel, east of the Bethel–Shechem highway, and south of Lebonah in the hill-country of Ephraim (Judg. Shiloh was identified unambiguously with Khirbet Seilun (Tel Shiloh) by American philologist E. The location had been established long before by the Roman writer Eusebius, and by Nestorius ha-Parhi.A resident of Shiloh was the prophet Achiyah mentioned in I Kings 14. Jerome, in his letter to Paula and Eustochius, dated about 392–393, writes: "With Christ at our side we shall pass through Shiloh and Bethel " (Ep.46,13, PL 22, 492).
The official church of Jerusalem did not schedule an annual pilgrimage to Shiloh, unlike Bethel.
Muslim pilgrims to Shiloh mention a mosque called es-Sekineh where the memory of Jacob's and Joseph's deeds was revered.
The earliest source is el-Harawi, who visited the country in 1173 when it was occupied by the Crusaders and wrote: "Seilun is the village of the mosque es-Sekineh where the stone of the Table is found".
Yaqut (1225) and el-Quarwini (1308, Marmardji, 94–95), write similarly.
Archaeological excavations have shown that the place was already settled from about 1750 BCE (Middle Bronze II or MB II, otherwise known as MB IIB according to the Albright school); however, it is not mentioned in any pre-biblical source.
A tell and many impressive remains have been unearthed from the Caananite and Israelite eras, with habitation lasting until the 8th century BCE.